Diet, Body Fat Related to Brain Chemistry
People who are obese may be more susceptible to environmental food cues than their lean counterparts because of differences in brain chemistry that make eating more habitual and less rewarding, according to a National Institutes of Health study published in Molecular Psychiatry.
Researchers at the NIH Clinical Center found that, when examining 43 men and women with varying amounts of body fat, obese participants tended to have greater dopamine activity in the habit-forming region of the brain than lean counterparts, and less activity in the region controlling reward. Those differences could potentially make the obese people more drawn to overeat in response to food triggers and simultaneously making food less rewarding to them. A chemical messenger in the brain, dopamine influences reward, motivation and habit formation.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/09/diet-body-fat-related-brain-chemistry
Mapping Cell Metabolism Aids study of Obesity
Researchers have shown how to use a new imaging platform to map lipid metabolism in living cells, discovering specifically where cholesterol is stored and pointing toward further studies in obesity, diabetes and longevity.
The imaging approach makes it possible to not only quantify the storage of cholesterol — a type of lipid — but also the “desaturation” and oxidation of lipids, which may reduce the ability of cells to use insulin, said Ji-Xin Cheng, a professor in Purdue Univ.’s Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemistry.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/09/mapping-cell-metabolism-aids-study-obesity
International Standards Assess Baby Growth
The first international standards for fetal growth and newborn size have been developed by a global team led by scientists from Oxford Univ. The international standards depict the desirable pattern of healthy growth for all babies everywhere, regardless of their ethnicity or country of birth. They provide 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th and 97th centile curves for the growth of a baby during pregnancy (as measured by ultrasound) and for a baby’s size at birth according to gestational age (weight, length and head circumference).
Now, for the first time, all 120 million babies born each year across the world can be assessed using a common set of standards, reflecting how babies should grow when mothers have adequate health, nutrition, medical care and socioeconomic status. This means it will be possible to detect underweight and overweight babies early in life no matter where in the world they are born.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/09/international-standards-assess-baby-growth
Sleeplessness Increases Obesity Risk
Teenagers who don’t get enough sleep may wake up to worse consequences than nodding off during chemistry class. According to new research, risk of being obese by age 21 was 20 percent higher among 16-year-olds who got less than six hours of sleep a night, compared with their peers who slumbered more than eight hours. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends nine to ten hours of sleep for teenagers.
Researchers at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia Univ. and the Univ. of North Carolina Gillings School of Public Health are the first to examine the effect of sleeplessness on obesity in teenagers over time, providing the strongest evidence yet that lack of sleep raises risk for an elevated BMI. Results appear in Journal of Pediatrics.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/08/sleeplessness-increases-obesity-risk
Sports Drinks Cause Weight Gain for Average People
Elite athletes down sports drink to help them reach new heights of performance. But for the average young person, these “health drinks” may cause them to reach new highs — on the bathroom scale.
A new study published in the journal Obesity suggests that young people who consume one or more sports drinks each day gained more weight over a three year period than classmates who chose other beverages.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/08/sports-drinks-cause-weight-gain-average-people
Researchers Say You Can Skip Breakfast
Breakfast is often said to be the most important meal of the day. Nutritionists regularly suggest it be eaten each morning for many health benefits, including weight loss and weight maintenance. But, new research led by the Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham shows that, when comparing regularly consuming with regularly skipping breakfast, weight loss was not influenced.
Past breakfast research, including an examination of 92 studies about the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity also performed at UAB, has found that, while an association exists between breakfast and weight management, the question of whether eating versus skipping breakfast causes differences in weight has not been answered by research, until now.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/06/researchers-say-you-can-skip-breakfast
Thirty Percent of People are Fat, No Country Exempt
Almost a third of the world is now fat, and no country has been able to curb obesity rates in the last three decades, according to a new global analysis.
Researchers found more than two billion people worldwide are now overweight or obese. The highest rates were in the Middle East and North Africa, where nearly 60 percent of men and 65 percent of women are heavy. The U.S. has about 13 percent of the world’s fat population, a greater percentage than any other country. China and India combined have about 15 percent.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/thirty-percent-people-are-fat-no-country-exempt
MSG Plays Role in Obesity, Fatty Liver Disease
The commonly used food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been linked to obesity and disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome including progressive liver disease. A new study that identifies MSG as a critical factor in the initiation of obesity and shows that a restrictive diet cannot counteract this effect but can slow the progression of related liver disease is published in Journal of Medicinal Food, a peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/msg-plays-role-obesity-fatty-liver-disease
Snacking Linked to Fatty Liver, Abdominal Obesity
Researchers from the Netherlands have found that snacking on high-fat and high-sugar foods was independently associated with abdominal fat and fatty liver (hepatic steatosis). According to the study published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, hypercaloric diet with frequent meals increased intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) and fat around the waist, but increasing meal size did not.
Obesity is a global health concern with the World Health Organization reporting that more than 200 million men and close to 300 million women were obese in 2008. In the U.S. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that 36 percent of adult Americans and 17 percent of children in the country are obese. Studies link obesity to the accumulation of abdominal fat and fat in the liver, making non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) one of the most prevalent diseases of the liver.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/snacking-linked-fatty-liver-abdominal-obesity
Weight Loss in Sheep Reduces Wool Quality
A new study into wool production has found that seasonal weight loss can cause reduced strength and appearance retention.
The study, involving 24 Australian Merino sheep, found the 12 that experienced experimentally induced weight-loss had significant increases in KAP13.1 and KAP6 proteins that cause reduced wearability and appearance retention in wool fibers.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/weight-loss-sheep-reduces-wool-quality
Whey Proteins May Aid Obese Adults
New evidence shores up findings that whey protein, which is found in milk and cheese, could have health benefits for people who are obese and do not yet have diabetes. The study, which appears in ACS’ Journal of Proteome Research, examined how different protein sources affect metabolism.
Lars Dragsted, Kjeld Hermansen and colleagues at the Univ. of Copenhagen point out that obesity continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. In the U.S. alone, about 35 percent of adults and about 17 percent of children are obese, a condition that can lead to a number of health issues, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/whey-proteins-may-aid-obese-adults
Study Says Vitamin D Doesn’t Affect Weight Loss
A Curtin Univ. study has cast doubt on claims vitamin D helps with fat loss after a meta-analysis of 12 high-quality vitamin D randomized control trials showed it had little impact on adiposity or obesity measures.
The School of Public Health study reviewed randomized controlled trials to see whether supplementation with vitamin D without caloric restriction influenced body weight and composition.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/study-casts-doubt-claims-vitamin-helps-fat-loss
Obesity Amplifies Bone, Muscle Loss
Florida State Univ. researchers have identified a new syndrome called “osteosarcopenic obesity” that links the deterioration of bone density and muscle mass with obesity.
"It used to be the thinking that the heavier you were the better your bones would be because the bones were supporting more weight," says Jasminka Ilich-Ernst, the Hazel Stiebeling Professor of Nutrition at Florida State. "But, that’s only true to a certain extent."
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/obesity-amplifies-bone-muscle-loss
Long-term Antibiotic Use Linked to Weight Gain
Scientists have unearthed still more evidence that antibiotics can contribute to obesity. Research published ahead of print in the American Society for Microbiology journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy suggests that patients on long-term antibiotic treatment gained weight and had significant changes in their gut microbiota.
The study, led by Didier Raoult of Aix-Marseille Univ., followed 48 patients who were being treated long-term with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for Q fever, and 34 control subjects. Nearly one quarter of the treated patients gained anywhere from two to 13 kg (five to 30 lbs), while none of the controls exhibited weight gain. Patients typically received treatment for 18 months.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/long-term-antibiotic-use-linked-weight-gain