Early Antibiotic Exposure Predisposes Mice to Obesity
A new study published today in Cell suggests that antibiotic exposure during a critical window of early development disrupts the bacterial landscape of the gut, home to trillions of diverse microbes, and permanently reprograms the body’s metabolism, setting up a predisposition to obesity. Moreover, the study shows that it is altered gut bacteria, rather than the antibiotics, driving the metabolic effects.
The new study by NYU Langone Medical Center researchers reveals that mice given lifelong low doses of penicillin starting in the last week of pregnancy or during nursing were more susceptible to obesity and metabolic abnormalities than mice exposed to the antibiotic later in life.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/08/early-antibiotic-exposure-predisposes-mice-obesity
New findings about the biological links between obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes may also shed light on the connection between obesity and cancer, says a scientist at The Univ. of Texas at Dallas. In a study published in Cell, UT Dallas’ Jung-whan (Jay) Kim and colleagues at UC San Diego found that a protein called HIF-1 alpha plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese mice.
The researchers genetically engineered mice to lack the HIF-1 alpha protein within the animals’ fat cells, or adipocytes. The animals still made HIF-1 alpha in other types of cells and tissues in their bodies. Although the mice became obese when fed a high-fat diet, they did not develop insulin resistance and diabetes to near the extent that genetically normal, obese mice did.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/06/researchers-study-obesitys-link-diabetes-cancer
Thirty Percent of People are Fat, No Country Exempt
Almost a third of the world is now fat, and no country has been able to curb obesity rates in the last three decades, according to a new global analysis.
Researchers found more than two billion people worldwide are now overweight or obese. The highest rates were in the Middle East and North Africa, where nearly 60 percent of men and 65 percent of women are heavy. The U.S. has about 13 percent of the world’s fat population, a greater percentage than any other country. China and India combined have about 15 percent.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/thirty-percent-people-are-fat-no-country-exempt
MSG Plays Role in Obesity, Fatty Liver Disease
The commonly used food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been linked to obesity and disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome including progressive liver disease. A new study that identifies MSG as a critical factor in the initiation of obesity and shows that a restrictive diet cannot counteract this effect but can slow the progression of related liver disease is published in Journal of Medicinal Food, a peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/msg-plays-role-obesity-fatty-liver-disease
Childhood Obesity Costs $19,000 Over Lifetime
Childhood obesity comes with an estimated price tag of $19,000 per child when comparing lifetime medical costs to those of a normal weight child, according to an analysis led by researchers at the Duke Global Health Institute and Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School in Singapore. When multiplied by the number of obese 10-year-olds in the U.S., lifetime medical costs for this age alone reach roughly $14 billion.
An alternative estimate, which takes into account the possibility of normal weight children gaining weight in adulthood, reduces the cost to $12,900 per obese child. The findings appear online today, in the journal Pediatrics.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/childhood-obesity-costs-19000-over-lifetime
Child’s Obesity Linked to Cognitive Function
A new Univ. of Illinois study has found that obese children are slower than healthy-weight children to recognize when they have made an error and correct it. The research is the first to show that weight status not only affects how quickly children react to stimuli but also impacts the level of activity that occurs in the cerebral cortex during action monitoring.
“I like to explain action monitoring this way: when you’re typing, you don’t have to be looking at your keyboard or your screen to realize that you’ve made a keystroke error. That’s because action monitoring is occurring in your brain’s prefrontal cortex,” says Charles Hillman, a U of I professor of kinesiology and faculty member in the U of I’s Division of Nutritional Sciences.
>br />Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/childs-obesity-linked-cognitive-function
Study Shows Link Between Obesity, Carb Digestion
New research indicates that obesity in the general population may be genetically linked to how our bodies digest carbohydrates.
Published in the journal Nature Genetics, the study investigated the relationship between body weight and a gene called AMY1, which is responsible for an enzyme present in our saliva known as salivary amylase. This enzyme is the first to be encountered by food when it enters the mouth, and it begins the process of starch digestion that then continues in the gut.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/study-shows-link-between-obesity-carb-digestion
Fat Mass in Cells Expands with Disuse
Over 35 percent of American adults and 17 percent of American children are considered obese, according to the latest survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associated with diabetes, heart disease, stroke and even certain types of cancer, obesity places a major burden on the health care system and economy. It’s usually treated through a combination of diet, nutrition, exercise and other techniques.
To understand how obesity develops, Prof. Amit Gefen, Natan Shaked and Naama Shoham of Tel Aviv Univ.’s Department of Biomedical Engineering, together with Prof. Dafna Benayahu of TAU’s Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, used state-of-the-art technology to analyze the accumulation of fat in the body at the cellular level. According to their findings, nutrition is not the only factor driving obesity. The mechanics of “cellular expansion” plays a primary role in fat production, they discovered.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/03/fat-mass-cells-expands-disuse
Study Dispels Diabetic ‘Obesity Paradox’ Myth
The “obesity paradox” — the controversial notion that being overweight might actually be healthier for some people with diabetes — seems to be a myth, researchers report. A major study finds there’s no survival advantage to being large, and a disadvantage to being very large.
More than 24 million Americans have diabetes, mostly Type 2, the kind that is on the rise because of obesity. About two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight, including one-third who are obese. Weighing too much increases the chances of heart disease, cancer and premature death. But some small studies have suggested this might not be true for everyone, and that Type 2 diabetics might even benefit from a few extra pounds — a “metabolic reserve” to help get them through sickness.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/01/study-dispels-diabetic-obesity-paradox-myth
Obesity Changes Sense of Taste in Mice
Obesity may alter the way we taste at the most fundamental level: by changing how our tongues react to different foods. In a study in the journal PLOS ONE, Univ. at Buffalo biologists report that being severely overweight impaired the ability of mice to detect sweets.
Compared with slimmer counterparts, the plump mice had fewer taste cells that responded to sweet stimuli. What’s more, the cells that did respond to sweetness reacted relatively weakly. The findings peel back a new layer of the mystery of how obesity alters our relationship to food.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/11/obesity-changes-sense-taste-mice
New Guidelines Tougher on Obesity
Next time you go for a checkup, don’t be surprised if your doctor gets on your case about your weight.
The medical profession has issued new guidelines for fighting the nation’s obesity epidemic, and they urge physicians to be a lot more aggressive about helping patients drop those extra pounds.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/11/new-guidelines-tougher-obesity
Huge Soda Tax Would Lower UK Obesity
Slapping a 20 percent tax on soda in Britain could cut the number of obese adults by about 180,000, according to a new study.
Though the number works out to a modest drop of 1.3 percent in obesity, scientists say that reduction would still be worthwhile in the UK, which has a population of about 63 million and is the fattest country in Western Europe. About one in four Britons is obese.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/11/huge-soda-tax-would-lower-uk-obesity
Researchers from the Univ. of Cambridge have discovered a novel genetic cause of severe obesity that — although relatively rare — demonstrates for the first time that genes can reduce basal metabolic rate.
Previous studies (performed by David Powell and colleagues at Lexicon Pharmaceuticals in Texas) demonstrated that when the gene KSR2 (Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2) was deleted in mice, the animals became severely obese. As a result of this research, Prof. Sadaf Farooqi from the Univ. of Cambridge’s Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science decided to explore whether KSR2 mutations might also lead to obesity in humans.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/10/genetic-mutations-cause-severe-obesity
Obesity Linked to Occasional Migraines
People who get occasional migraines are more likely to be obese than people who do not have migraines, according to a study published in the online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
“Previous studies have shown a link between people with chronic migraine and obesity, but the research has been conflicting on whether that link existed for those with less frequent attacks,” says study author B. Lee Peterlin, of Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine. “As obesity is a risk factor that can potentially be modified and since some medications for migraine can lead to weight gain or loss, this is important information for people with migraine and their doctors.”
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/09/obesity-linked-occasional-migraines
Good Bacteria May Fight Obesity
Call it a hidden ally: the right germs just might be able to help fight fat. Different kinds of bacteria that live inside the gut can help spur obesity or protect against it, say scientists at Washington Univ. in St. Louis who transplanted intestinal germs from fat or lean people into mice and watched the rodents change.
And what they ate determined whether the good germs could move in and do their job. The report raises the possibility of one day turning gut bacteria into personalized fat-fighting therapies, and it may help explain why some people have a harder time losing weight than others do.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/09/good-bacteria-may-fight-obesity