A research group at Bonn Univ. and international collaborators discovered a novel receptor that allows the immune system of modern humans to recognize dangerous invaders, and subsequently elicits an immune response. The blueprint for this advantageous structure has also been identified in the genome of Neanderthals, hinting at its origin.
The receptor provided these early humans with immunity against local diseases. The presence of this receptor in Europeans but its absence in early men suggests that it was inherited from Neanderthals.
Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/11/immune-gene-originated-neanderthals